US Political Theory

Adam Smith - Scottish philosopher & economist railed against restrictive, regulated system & showed how the principles of free trade, competition, & choice would spur economic development, reduce poverty & precipitate the social & moral improvement of humankind. Read the Capitalist Bible "The Wealth of Nations" free. Plus much more Smith.
John Locke - Social contract theory. Denotes an implicit agreement within a Issues regarding the rights & responsibilities of the Issues & its citizens. Influenced the American revolutionaries as reflected in the American Declaration of Independence.
Federalist Papers - System of government in which power is divided between a central government and the government of each state. Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison & John Jay.
Antifederalists Papers
Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of both liberal and socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. Wrote "The Social Contract", which outlines the basis for a legitimate political order.
Andrew Jackson - The Jacksonian era saw a great increase of respect and power for the common man, as the electorate expanded to include all white male adult citizens, rather than only land owners.

 

US Political Theory

John Maynard Keynes - His theory revolutionized the way economists think. The notion of aggregate demand as the sum of consumption, investment & government spending. It showed that full employment could be maintained only with the help of government spending. Wages would be kept stable. A cut in wages, would decrease income, consumption & aggregate demand. This would offset any benefits to output that the lower price of labor might have contributed.
Thomas Paine - Common Sense was published on January 10, 1776, during the American Revolution. It denounced British rule, and through its immense popularity contributed to fomenting the American Revolution.
Thomas Jefferson - Founding Father, author of the Declaration of Independence and the third president. Letters and other texts written by or sent to Jefferson plus quotations, scholarly articles and more. From the University of Virginia.
Wikipedia - Complete history of Jefferson including his political philosophies and theories.
John Adams - Founding Father and the second president. Wrote: A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States.
James Madison - Father of the Constitution and the revolutionary three-branch federal system. Wrote the Bill of Rights.